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  Most popular articles (Since May 31, 2021)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Behaviour and the perception of physical activity during the period of movement control order (MCO) in Malaysia
Syarifah Fathynah Syed Shiekh, Suresh Marathamuthu
January-June 2021, 10(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328221  
To curb the spread of Covid-19, governments have introduced social distancing measures with varying degrees of enforcement, ranging from unenforced recommendations to quarantine. Physical activity is an important determinant of health, and it is likely affected by social distancing measures introduced to combat the pandemic. This study presents findings from an online survey examining behaviour and the perception of physical activity and exercise during the period of the movement control order (MCO) in Malaysia. A total of 307 respondents (male = 134, female = 173) participated in the survey, which comprised three sections with a total of 33 items. Results indicate that about 80% of the respondents engaged in physical activity and exercise during the MCO period, but male respondents reported a greater impact on their actual physical activity and exercise as compared to female respondents. This study reveals no significant correlation between gender and perception, but it does show a significant correlation between gender and behaviour (p < 0.05) in terms of physical activity and exercise during the MCO period. This study found that both genders have a positive understanding and awareness of the benefits of physical activity and exercise, which are crucial for physical and mental health during the pandemic.
  308 44 -
Exergaming improves self-efficacy in sustaining physical activity among sedentary university students
Hafzan Yusoff, Wan Nudri Wan Daud, Ahmad Syahmi Rasyad
January-June 2021, 10(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328211  
This research contrasts the physical activity-related self-efficacy before and after exergame play and the gender-wise expectancy related to beliefs and task values. Sedentary undergraduates (n=102; 51 males, 51 females) were recruited from a local university in Kota Bharu, Kelantan using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, expectancy related beliefs, subjective task values and intention to participate in exergame play in the future. After exergame play, participants had a significantly higher degree of self-efficacy than before exergame play (mean score: before 27.1 ± 4.33 vs. after 32.2 ± 4.51; p < 0.001). Their belief in their ability to exercise on a regular basis varied considerably across gender, with higher values reported in male than in female participants (mean difference= 0.84, p=0.02). Other components, such as expectancy-related beliefs, task values, and intentions, were comparable between gender. Besides, participants also considered exergaming to be more attractive and stimulating than traditional physical exercise, thereby presenting greater beliefs in capability and greater desire to engage in exergaming in the future. The result suggests that exergame play can be used as an innovative approach to increase the level of physical activity among sedentary university students.
  288 43 -
Dietary habits and body mass index between athletes and nonathletes of UiTM
Siti Soraya Binti Mohd Elias, Intan Nursyazanie Binti Mohamad Rizal
January-June 2021, 10(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328212  
The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) between student-athletes and non-student athletes in UiTM (Universiti Teknologi MARA), as well as to study the relationship between their dietary habits and BMI. Dietary habits are the habitual decisions of the individual regarding what foods they eat, while BMI is one of the widely used tools to identify the nutritional status of the individual. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Respondents' body weight and height were self-measured, and respondents provide the data in the demographic section. Dietary habits questionnaire comprised of 18 questions, including the frequency of food intake from every section of the food pyramid, snack, fast food, vitamin and mineral supplements, breakfast, beverages intake and meal skipping. The result showed the mean dietary habits score of student-athletes were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than non-student athletes. This could indicate the awareness of the student-athlete to practice a good dietary habit for them to enhance their sports performance. Regarding BMI, majority of the respondents from both student-athletes (62%) and non-student athletes (70%) were in the normal weight BMI category, and no significant difference was found in both groups. In addition, present study found no significant relationship between dietary habits and BMI for both student-athletes (r-value = –0.093, p = 0.359) and non-student athletes' (r-value = –0.037, P = 0.713) groups, showing that dietary habits of the respondents does not correlate with their BMI. Although no significant association were found, normal BMI category and appropriate dietary habits are essential to be practised by everyone irrespective athletes or nonathletes, and this is to ensure a healthy lifestyle and reducing the risk of getting the non-communicable disease.
  269 42 -
Comparison of low-load bench press and push-up exercises on muscular performance among female youth
Nur Khairunisa Abu Talip, Edmund Bonnie, Zulkifli Ismail, Mohd Rizal Md Razali
January-June 2021, 10(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328214  
Introduction: Various fitness challenges had been invented and innovated in order to integrate exercise in life, especially during the new norm of Covid-19 pandemic. There is a lack of study on the effect of push-up exercise on sedentary women. The study aimed to compare the effects of six-week push-up (PU) and low-load bench press (BP) exercise interventions towards muscular strength (MS) and muscular endurance (ME) among healthy sedentary female youth. Methodology: Forty (n = 40) healthy sedentary female youth (aged 18.93 ±.97 years; body mass index 23.44 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were recruited in the study. Participants were divided into two groups of training interventions (push-up and bench press group). Resistance exercise intervention involving four sessions per week for six consecutive weeks. Each session comprised of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with one minute of rest between each set. Bench press exercise was performed at 40% 1RM for bench press group. One-repetition maximum bench press (1RM BP) test and one-minute push-up (1 Min PU) test were performed at pre and post-intervention to measure muscular strength and muscular endurance. A 2 × 2 mixed model ANOVA was employed to compare the effects of the two interventions following six-weeks of training. Result: Muscular strength and muscular endurance for the push-up group have significantly improved (p < .05), with at the end of the intervention were 59.75 ± 13.91 and 45.05 ± 6.59 as compared to during the pre-intervention of 42.0 ± 11.40 and 28.95 ± 5.93, respectively. A similar result also found for bench press group. Muscular strength and muscular endurance for bench press group had significantly increased (p < .05), from the pre-test of 44.50 ± 9.58 and 29.95 ± 6.28 to the post-test of 60.25 ± 10.45 and 41.45 ± 6.20, respectively. However, there is no significant difference observed between groups (bench press and push-up protocols) on muscular strength (p = .661) and muscular endurance (p = .472). Conclusions: The present study concludes that push-up and low-load bench press exercise interventions do significantly improve muscular strength and muscular endurance of sedentary female youth, with push-up as an alternative for bench press for sedentary female youth.
  180 28 -
Understanding mental health in malaysian elite sports: a qualitative approach
Philip Lew Chun Foong, Rebecca Wong Sook Kwan
January-June 2021, 10(1):33-41
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328215  
The attention in the society and rapid expansion of interest on the status and challenges of mental health among sporting athletes, especially in the elite sports setting, had increased exponentially. The present study was aimed to explore and gain a better understanding of mental health and psychological well-being of Malaysian elite athletes. It also provides insights into a broader aspect based on participants' personal experiences. A semi-structured interview was conducted for all 32 athletes (male, n = 16; female, n = 16) from a variety of sport: individual, team-sports; able-bodied, and Paralympic. Participants were aged between 19-38 years old (mean 25.69 years) from various ethnicity and religions. Six (6) themes (Personal understanding on mental health; Stigma of mental health; Symptoms, effects and sources of mental health; Coping strategies; Mental health and well-being support; Advice of athletes) and 19 subthemes were derived based on qualitative thematic analysis. Based on the analysis, subthemes, i.e. Presentation in mass media; Transition; Personal life-related issues; Performance expectation; Sporting environment are significant stressors causing mental health issues. The influence of spirituality and religion on the topic of mental health was also being highlighted. In conclusion, it is hopeful that the present study will stimulate interest and discussion in identifying methods and direction for both researchers and practitioners in bridging the theoretical-applied gap and offer effective supports to Malaysian athletes.
  142 28 -
Construction of the skill related physical fitness evaluation index system of Chinese Young male tennis players
Xiao Wensheng, Soh Kim Geok, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali Wazir, Nasnoor Juzaily bin Mohd Nasiruddin, Bai Xiaorong
January-June 2021, 10(1):18-26
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328213  
The skill-related physical fitness evaluation index system is an important reference basis for evaluating the competitive level of tennis players. At present, there are few studies on the skill-related physical fitness evaluation index system of Chinese young male tennis players. Based on the characteristics of tennis events and the sensitive period of the development of young tennis players skill-related physical fitness variables, this study uses literature methods, Delphi method and other research methods to construct an evaluation index system for Chinese young male tennis players skills related physical fitness. The results show that: Chinese young male tennis players skill-related physical fitness includes six first-level indicators including speed, strength, endurance, agility, flexibility, and power, 11 second-level indicators such as aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance, upper body power, and lower body power, etc., 16 third-level indicators such as the hexagon test, beep test, sit and reach, etc.
  144 21 -
ARTICLES
Energy expenditure of walking with different types of armored vests in military personnel – A pilot study
Brinnell Caszo, Zubaidah Hasain, Justin Gnanou
July-December 2019, 8(2):1-9
DOI:10.15282/mohe.v8i2.386  
The use of armoured vests is an additional burden on the wearer, and has an impact on the ability to function for military personnel. In light of the limitations of the number of rations that can be carried, the aim of this study was to determine the energy cost of wearing armoured vests and compare the energy cost of six different types of vests. In this pilot study, six well trained volunteers from a military training academy were chosen. Their basal metabolic rate was measured. Then they used six different vests in a cross-over study design, and their energy expenditure was measured using an indirect calorimeter while walking on a treadmill. Data from our study revealed that using the vests, energy expenditure was increased by an average of 2.7 Kcal/Kg/day over basal metabolic rate. However, there were no significant differences between the six different vests. Thus, we were able to quantify the amount of additional energy that is required for walking at a speed of 3.5km/hr. This study also revealed that there is no difference in energy expenditure between different types of armoured vests. Further investigation is required to study the effects at greater workloads to document the effect of the vests.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  78 17 -
Breakfast Consumption Association With body Status and Physical Activity among Female University Students
R Nurul Najwa, M Appukutty
July-December 2018, 7(2):93-106
Breakfast consumption is associated with many benefits, including behavioural, cognitive, and affective aspects. Young adults, especially female university/college students, frequently fail to meet the prescription of nutritional intake and often skip meals, particularly breakfast. Thus, this study investigates the associations of breakfast consumption with body status and level of physical activity among female university students. A total of 165 female university students, mean age 21.9 ± 1.5 years from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, Malaysia, voluntarily took part in this study. Body weight, height, waist circumference and body fat percentages were measured using standard procedures. The odd ratios were calculated to compare in level of physical activity between breakfast skippers and non-skippers. The findings revealed that breakfast consumption was not significantly associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference or physical activity level. Conversely, the results showed that breakfast consumption was significantly associated with body fat percentages (%BF) (p<0.05; p=0.006). The results show that skippers were more likely (OR: 1.6; 95% CI) never to perform mild exercise or only performed mild exercise for less than half an hour per day (56.5%) compared to non-skippers (43.5%) even though the data did not meet the level of statistical significance. Among the respondents, skippers (56.5%) were more likely (OR: 1.6; 95% CI) to spend less than half an hour in moderate exercise than non-skippers (43.5%). Also, the data indicates that non-skippers (53.3%) were more likely (OR: 2.4 times) to do moderate exercise of more than half an hour than skippers (46.7%). Skippers (65.3%) tend to do more strenuous exercise of less than half an hour (OR: 5.3; 95% CI) compared to non-skippers (34.7%). Emphasizing the importance of eating breakfast may lead university students to have better healthy lifestyles, improve academic achievement and prevent obesity crisis among young adults.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  80 6 -
Perkembangan Motor Kasar Di Kalangan Murid Orang Asli Berumur Tujuh, Lapan Dan Sembilan Tahun Di Daerah Gua Musang Kelantan
Asraff Ariff, Halijah Ibrahim
July-December 2017, 6(2):147-156
This study aim to identify the level of gross motor development in Aboriginal children aged seven, eight, and nine years and distinguish it by using a scale of Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ). This study was an ex post facto involving 99 subjects (M : 57, P : 42 ) aged between seven (M=6.53, SD=.34), eight (M=7.45, SD=.33), and nine years (M=8.56, SD=.34). Ulrich's rough motor development test was being conducted to measure the level of gross motor development of Aboriginal students for locomotor and manipulative skills. The scores transcribed for GMDQ score. Scores were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 for comparing means gross motor achievements of Aboriginal students according to age seven, eight, and nine years. The results showed that there were significant differences for GMDQ Aboriginal students aged seven, eight, and nine years [F (2, 117) = 40.264, p< .05]. For the analysis of the Post Hoc Test, all three age groups of Aboriginal students showed significant differences for GMDQ score (p <0.05). The study shows that there are GMDQ differences according to age level. The development of gross motor of aboriginal students aged seven years can be said to be in normal development, while the aboriginal students aged eight and nine years had poor motor development.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  78 4 -
Notational Analysis on Game Strategy Performed by Female Squash Players in International Competition
Diyana Zulaika Abdul Ghani, Halijah Ibrahim, Zainal Abidin Zainuddin, Chris Button
July-December 2016, 5(2):15-21
Recently, the general performance standards of women's squash have progressed to very high levels as demonstrated by several ‘spectacular’ world championships final matches. Our aim was to identify successful game strategies of female squash players at the international level via notational analysis. 25 matches were obtained for analysis from several international competitions, including the Women's World Championship 2014, the Women's World Team Squash Championship 2014 and the Malaysia Circuit Squash 2015. Analysis was based on observation of the type of stroke performed and the rally outcome. The mean total number of shots performed per game was 337 (SD=189.6) shots. The most preferred strokes performed were drive (47.1%), followed by cross-court (19.9%), volley (12.7%), drop (11.1%), boast (5.8%), with the lob (3.4%) as least frequently occurring shot. Meanwhile, rally outcomes were categorized as winners, errors, stroke, and let. There were more winners produced (58.5%) than errors (24.8%) or lets (16.69%). The findings indicate that defensive long rallies together with offensive endings (such as well-timed drop shots) are characteristic of points played in elite women's squash. The practical implications of this analysis may help coaches and female players enhance both tactical strategy and performance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  66 10 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The differences in the ball speed and the spin rate depending on the results of a tennis serve
Ryogo Kashiwagi, Shuhei Okamura, Shinya Iwanaga, Shunsuke Murakami, Koki Numata, Hiroo Takahashi
January-June 2021, 10(1):48-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328217  
In tennis, the service is the only shot that a player can give himself without being influenced by his opponent, and it is said to be the most powerful and essential shot in the game to win the game (Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011). In this study, we will investigate the difference in speed and spin rate in services when a service is entered, when it is not entered, and when an ace is taken. Fourteen three-set singles matches of 20 participants in the ATP Challenger tournament were included in the analysis. The speed and spin rate was measured using the Trackman. The analysis included 1343 1st service balls. We compared the speed and spin rate for each IN, FAULT and ACE in the 1st service using one-way ANOVA. The speed of the 1st service, IN was significantly slower than that of FAULT and ACE. The spin rate of the 1st serve, IN had significantly more revolutions than the FAULT and ACE. The results of this study showed that the service was faster and lower spin rate when ACE was taken. However, it was found that the faster the speed of the service and the lower the spin rate, the higher the rate of FAULT. These considerations suggest that it is important to decide whether to take risks or play it safe, depending on the game situation at the time.
  72 4 -
ARTICLES
Relationship among obesity, physical activity level, physical fitness and academic performance in female secondary school students in Shah Alam
Nurul Amira Mohd Samsudin, Sarina Md Yusof, Suhana Aiman
January-June 2019, 8(1):81-89
DOI:10.15282/mohe.v8i1.227  
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among obesity, physical activity level, physical fitness and academic performance among female secondary school students in Shah Alam. Two hundred and fourteen participants (age: 16 years, body height: 156.76 ± 5.65 cm, body mass 59.92 ± 13.35 kg, BMI: 24.41 ± 5.00 kg/m2) participated in this study. Students with a body mass index above 25 kg/m2 were classified as obese. Physical activity level was evaluated by using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while physical fitness was evaluated by the total score of four fitness components (cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility) measured by SEGAK used in Malaysia secondary schools. Academic performance was assessed by the Average School Grade (ASG) from the Form Three Assessment (PT3) results of the previous year. There was a negative significant relationship between obesity and physical activity level (r = -0.20, p < 0.05), obesity and physical fitness (r = -0.42, p < 0.05), obesity and academic performance (r = 0.49, p < 0.05), physical activity level and physical fitness (r = 0.54, p < 0.05), physical activity level and academic performance (r = -0.14, p < 0.05). and physical fitness and academic performance (r = -0.26, p < 0.05). These results suggested that obesity status, physical activity level and physical fitness could not only affect health status but also academic performance in secondary school students.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  60 14 -
Associations between Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity and Self-Reported Heath-Related Quality of Life of Older Malay Adults Using Cut-Points for Vector Magnitude
Nurdiana Abidin, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Rabindarjeet Singh
January-June 2016, 5(1):13-23
Background: There are few data on the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and objectively-measured physical activity (PA) in non-Westernised populations, especially the older population. Furthermore, in light of recent accelerometer models introduced in the market which assess acceleration along three axes, we theorised that a population study using cut-points based on composite vector magnitude (VM) is needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the associations between tri-axial accelerometer-determined PA and HRQoL in community-dwelling older Malay adults, using cut-points for VM. Method: The study design was cross-sectional, involving 146 community-dwelling older Malay adults aged 60 to 85 years old (59 men, 87 women) living in Seberang Perai Utara, Penang, Malaysia. PA data was collected using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X or GT3X+) worn around the hip during waking hours for 7 days. Intensities were categorised using cut-points for VM. HRQoL was measured using the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36®) and scored using the norm-based scoring system. Analyses included sex differences in PA variables and HRQoL and correlation (Spearman's rho) between PA and HRQoL. Results: Significant positive association was found between moderate PA and bodily pain, but only for men (rho=0.263, p<0.05). Men scored higher in all eight domains of SF-36®, but significantly higher in norm-based physical functioning (p<0.05) and vitality (p<0.05), compared to women. When scored using 0-100 scales, it was found that men scored significantly higher on four domains of SF-36® compared to women: PF (p<0.05), BP (p<0.001), VIT (p<0.05), and MH (p<0.05). There were no sex differences found in overall activity counts. Conclusion: In this sample population, triaxial accelerometer-determined PA has minimal association to the domains of health, and men are likely to have better self-perceived health compared to women.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  62 11 -
Eliciting Social Cultural Predictors of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nigeria
Agbonlahor Nafisa Loveth, Osagiede Florence Isoken
July-December 2020, 9(2):57-70
The thrust of this paper was to elicit socio-cultural predictors of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria. Socio-cultural parameters were seen to be those factors in the social environment that influences behavior. The socio-cultural theory holds that people learn through interactions within the socio-cultural environment. Such interactions include the home (parental influence, social/economic status of family), peers and culture (religious practices, age norms, and gender issues). This paper further examines these factors and how they predict risky sexual behavior such as early marriage, non-utilization of contraception, early sex initiation, induced abortions, having multiple sex partners, sex under the influence of alcohol, and indulging in sex for financial and material gains, among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria. It was therefore concluded that the socio-cultural environment is a strong predictor of adolescent and young adult sexual risk behavior in Nigeria. Thus, it is recommended that social/cultural environment should be shaped for optimum reproductive health behavior among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  60 9 -
Effects of Plyometric Training on Grass Surface and Concrete Surface on Jumping Performance among Volleyball Athletes
Mohamad Hariff Ramlan, Patricia Pawa Pitil, Wan Juliana Emeih Wahed
July-December 2018, 7(2):127-134
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 4 weeks of plyometric training on grass surface group and concrete surface on jumping performance among volleyball athletes. The vertical jump was evaluated in two types of jump; squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). The results of this study indicate that 4 weeks of intervention led to a significant improvement in post-tests of SJ and CMJ (p < 0.05) for both grass surface and concrete surface. However, in comparing the grass and concrete surfaces, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that plyometric training on different surfaces may be associated with similar training-induced effects on neuromuscular factors related to the efficiency of the stretch-shortening cycle.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  54 14 -
Effects of 8 Weeks Core Strength Training on Core Muscle Strength among Young Male Cyclists
Stephanie Chok
July-December 2020, 9(2):9-16
This study aimed to determine whether 8 weeks of a core strength training program with three sessions weekly can improve cyclists' core muscle strength. Six healthy male junior cyclists (age 15.8 ± 1 years, mass 62 ± 4 kg, height 170.2 ± 6 cm) volunteered for the study. Participants were instructed to perform five types of core exercises per session for a total of 24 sessions. For every session, each movement was performed in 20 repetitions for three sets. Comparison of pre-and post-test data revealed significantly greater (p < 0.05) gains in this case study. These results suggest that it is important for coaches to incorporate core strengthening exercises in their training routines.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  54 13 -
Technical Performance Analyses of Volleyball Players Using Volleyball Information System
Muhammad , Mohammad Faruk, Bambang Sujatmiko
July-December 2020, 9(2):101-112
The purpose of this study was to analyze the technical performance of team performance in an event of the main division in Indonesia. The sample of this study was the players' performance of the winning team. The data were collected using the Volleyball Tactical Information Skill (VTIS) software which is originally developed by the researcher based on the Volleyball Information System (VIS). The data collected using the VTIS includes service, ball receive, attack, toss, block, and dig that was performed by each player throughout the game. The statistical data is presented on average and percentage. The statistical data obtained from VTIS has been proven to be useful and provides valuable information for the team's technical performance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  52 14 -
Body Image Appearances in Adolescents Schoolchildren
Pari Khalili Marandi, Norlena Salamudin
January-June 2020, 9(1):195-206
The key objective of this research was to analyse and understand the effects of gender and age on body image appearance at age 12 and 15 in both gender groups. In other words, the study examines how age and gender influence adolescents' body image appearance. The sample chosen for this study included 1429 schoolchildren (710 boys and 719 girls) from primary and secondary in Tehran. The Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) was used. The differences between body image appearances of boys and girls between at the ages of 12 and 15 were analysed and compared using the ANOVA test. The ranking of the four group samples was achieved by using mean of body image appearance. Data analysis indicated significant effects of age, gender and other interactions of the variables on body image on boys and girls at the ages of 12 and 15. The result reveals that in the same age category, boys were at a better level of body image appearance than girls. Also, the result revealed that the body image appearance level was better in the younger age category.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  54 10 -
Digit ratio and its relationship with aerobic and anaerobic capacities among talented young footballers
Zulkhairi Azam, Ihram Johar, Zainal Abidin Zainuddin, Fariq Rahman
January-June 2019, 8(1):135-143
DOI:10.15282/mohe.v8i1.218  
Digit ratio has been investigated extensively and in certain studies has been shown to be predetermined as early as in the womb. Digit ratio is often associated with varied human performance in various aspects such as fertility, psychology, disease, and sports. It has been reported that athletes with higher testosterone levels excel over than those with low testosterone levels. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of low digit ratio with talented young footballers' aerobic and anaerobic capacities. The study selected 29 subjects (N=29), comprising male students aged 10.41±0.57 (years) actively undergoing football training at the Kuala Lumpur Football Association (KLFA) Academy. Spearman's Rho result indicates that low digit ratio is moderately correlated with aerobic capacity, which was tested by using One Mile Run test (MRW) with =0.406, p=0.029. Meanwhile, concerning the association between low digit ratio and anaerobic capacity through 50-meter sprint tests, the results deduced from Spearman's Rho revealed that there is no significant correlation, with =-.128, p=0.509. In conclusion, these results may give further insights into the influence of digit ratio on energy capacities if the sample size is improved with a thorough methodology. Given a larger sample size and detailed research in future, digit ratio could be a good indicator in classifying athletes based on their dominant energy system capacity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  54 10 -
The Effectiveness of Myofascial Release Over Stretching on Pain and Range of Motion among Female College Students With Piriformis Syndrome
Sarmitha Rajendran, Subramanian Shenbaga Sundaram
July-December 2020, 9(2):45-56
Piriformis syndrome is a painful neuromuscular disorder that occurs when the piriformis muscle irritates and/or compresses the proximal sciatic nerve. Prolonged sitting position is the foremost cause of piriformis tightness in sedentary population that may eventually leads to piriformis syndrome. The incidence of piriformis has been reported to be six times more prevalent among females than males. Piriformis tightness will cause reduction in the range of motion, as well as limitations in walking, sitting and even running. Moreover, individuals will also feel pain in their butt muscles, which could be frustrating. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of myofascial release over stretching on pain and range of motion among female college students with piriformis syndrome. Twenty participants aged between 19 to 25 years old with tight piriformis muscle for four weeks participated in the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were randomised and underwent myofascial release and stretching treatment twice in a week for four weeks. Before each session, the pain score and goniometer measurements were recorded. The experimental group and control group benefited through reduced pain and range of motion. Therefore, there are no significant effects of myofascial release found over stretching between the two groups.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  58 6 -
Ball Possession of A Successful Team (Johor Darul Ta'Zim Fc) in Malaysia Super League 2015: A Case Study
MS Miswan, EA M. Aznan, Z Ismail, M Jamaludin, AF Mohd Kassim
July-December 2018, 7(2):117-126
The ability to possess the ball during soccer matches is linked to success. The domination of Johor Darul Ta'zim FC (JDT FC) in recent years in the Malaysia Super League has impressed many. The aim of this study was to compare the performance between JDT FC and their opponents in Malaysia Super League 2015 season. Successful and unsuccessful passes, ball possession rates, attempt on goal, shot on target, and goals scored were selected as Performance Indicators (P.I) in this study. Twelve matches from Malaysia Super League (MSL) season 2015 were selected. Video of 12 matches was obtained from Media Prima Sdn. Bhd., www.youtube.com and live recordings. Longo Match 1.0 match analysis software was used for post-coding. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z was used to analyses the differences while Spearman's rho correlation test was utilized to determine the correlation. Percentage of successful passes (p=0.034), ball possessions rate (p=0.000), and goal scored (p=0.002) were significantly difference between JDT FC and their opponents. There were also positive correlations between possessions and all variables except for unsuccessful passes. This study concludes that in Malaysian soccer matches, a high percentage of successful passes and high rate of ball possessions influence total shots in a soccer game.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  50 13 -
Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children's Physical Activity: How Reliable is The Fitbit Ziptm?
Tingting Xu, Erik Jon Byker, Monica Rae Gonzales
July-December 2017, 6(2):1-10
The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children's physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Avoiding Medication Errors Through Effective Communication in A Healthcare Environment
Zayyanu Shitu, Isyaku Hassan, Myat Moe Thwe Aung, Tuan Hairulnizam Tuan Kamaruzaman, Rabiu Muazu Musa
January-June 2018, 7(1):115-128
One of the major problems causing medication errors is ineffective communication between patients and health personnel. This paper discusses the communication issues in the healthcare environment and how medication errors can be avoided through effective communication. An internet-based search was conducted to locate relevant articles published between 2004 and 2017. Only articles that touch upon communication and health-related issues were selected. Online sources such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were utilized. The importance of good communication practices for effective health and improved patient safety in hospital settings has been highlighted. It is evident from this review that poor communication most frequent causes adverse effects, delay in treatment, medication errors, and wrong-site surgery. The major communication issues in healthcare environment include language barriers, the medium of communication, physical setting, and social setting. Healthcare workers tend to use technical language in the workplace because they consider the tone of communication to be always professional. It has been established that knowledge on professional-patient communication is essential and valuable in improving therapeutic outcomes. Patients need knowledge and support in order to be able and motivated to undergo medicine therapy. Health practitioners need to take responsibility for demanding and creating an environment where high-quality healthcare counselling is routinely practiced. To promote safe and effective practice in hospitals and avoid medication errors, clinicians should adhere to teamwork and effective communication with the patients. There is a need for designing strategies such as effective communication and teamwork amongst healthcare professionals, which can consequently influence the quality of healthcare services and patient outcomes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The association between physical activity and work schedule among hospital nurses: A cross-sectional study
Lim Zhuang Li, Mahmoud Danaee, Zulkarnain Jaafar
January-June 2019, 8(1):15-32
DOI:10.15282/mohe.v8i1.254  
Physically sedentary and overweight nurses appear to be less credible in inculcating healthy behaviour among patients. Shift-work has been shown to promote physical inactivity, whilst sedentarism strongly correlates with a high body mass index (BMI). We aim to determine the level of physical activity among hospital nurses of different work schedules, i.e. shift-work and day-work; and explore any associations between nurses' demographic backgrounds, BMI, and work schedules with their physical activity level. This cross-sectional study design was employed. The self-administered Malaysian International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Long form (IPAQ-L) and a demographic survey sheet were provided to the eligible nurses. Bivariate and subsequent regression analyses were performed to determine their associations. A total of 1988 nurses from the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur were invited to participate in this study. There were 1504 (76%) returned responses, with 77% of responding nurses working shift. Based on the IPAQ-L, 87% of the nurses were deemed highly active, while another 11% were moderately active. Upon stratifying into shift-work and day-work, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in the domains of ‘work’ (p = 0.016), ‘domestic chores’ (p = 0.038), and in intensity-specific ‘walking’ (p = 0.046) and ‘vigorous’ activities (p = 0.034). There were no differences among groups within categories of physical activities (p = 0.355). Regression analysis showed significant difference for ‘duration of daily vehicle travel’, with the day-workers reporting a longer adjusted travel time (76.50 minutes/day, p < 0.001). Working shift does not seem to harm an individual nurse's overall measured physical activity, as evidenced by equivalent high values of physical activity engagement between both work schedules. Any differences within domains and intensities of physical activities may be attributed to the respective cohort characteristics.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Characteristics of resting ecg among sabah professional male footballers
Mohamad Azwan Bin Aziz, Redzal Abu Hanifah
January-June 2021, 10(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/2231-9409.328219  
The purpose of this study is to describe the resting electrocardiogram (ECG) seen among 176 professional male footballers from Sabah Football Association Club during preparticipation evaluation. Data were analysed retrospectively from 2017 to 2019. Majority of the players were Sabah natives (n = 153, 87%) while the remaining were Malay footballers (n = 23, 13%). Mean age of the players was 19.9 ± 3.1, mean body mass index was 22.6 kg/m2 ± 7, mean resting heart rate was 53.6 beats per minute ± 9.4, mean systolic blood pressure was 122.3 mmHg ± 12, and mean diastolic blood pressure was 65.1 mmHg ± 8.8. Using the International Criteria for ECG Interpretation in Athletes 2017 consensus guidelines, 8.5% (n = 15) had abnormal ECG while 2.8% (n = 5) had borderline ECG. The most common ECG changes seen in the normal findings were sinus bradycardia (n = 123, 69.9%), early repolarization (n = 115, 65.3%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 83,47.2%). Abnormal ECGs were abnormal t wave inversion (n = 7,4.0%) and pre-excitation syndrome (n = 5,2.9%). All footballers with abnormal ECG findings were subjected to further evaluation by a cardiologist using echocardiography assessment and exercise stress test. They passed the cardiology assessment; thus, they were deemed fit to play. ECG is a valuable tool for pre-participation health screening prior to exercise or sports participation, as it is vital for a physician to identify any abnormal ECG to minimise the risk of sudden cardiac death during exercise due to cardiac pathology.
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