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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2021
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-64

Online since Thursday, October 14, 2021

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Exergaming improves self-efficacy in sustaining physical activity among sedentary university students p. 1
Hafzan Yusoff, Wan Nudri Wan Daud, Ahmad Syahmi Rasyad
This research contrasts the physical activity-related self-efficacy before and after exergame play and the gender-wise expectancy related to beliefs and task values. Sedentary undergraduates (n=102; 51 males, 51 females) were recruited from a local university in Kota Bharu, Kelantan using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, expectancy related beliefs, subjective task values and intention to participate in exergame play in the future. After exergame play, participants had a significantly higher degree of self-efficacy than before exergame play (mean score: before 27.1 ± 4.33 vs. after 32.2 ± 4.51; p < 0.001). Their belief in their ability to exercise on a regular basis varied considerably across gender, with higher values reported in male than in female participants (mean difference= 0.84, p=0.02). Other components, such as expectancy-related beliefs, task values, and intentions, were comparable between gender. Besides, participants also considered exergaming to be more attractive and stimulating than traditional physical exercise, thereby presenting greater beliefs in capability and greater desire to engage in exergaming in the future. The result suggests that exergame play can be used as an innovative approach to increase the level of physical activity among sedentary university students.
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Behaviour and the perception of physical activity during the period of movement control order (MCO) in Malaysia Highly accessed article p. 7
Syarifah Fathynah Syed Shiekh, Suresh Marathamuthu
To curb the spread of Covid-19, governments have introduced social distancing measures with varying degrees of enforcement, ranging from unenforced recommendations to quarantine. Physical activity is an important determinant of health, and it is likely affected by social distancing measures introduced to combat the pandemic. This study presents findings from an online survey examining behaviour and the perception of physical activity and exercise during the period of the movement control order (MCO) in Malaysia. A total of 307 respondents (male = 134, female = 173) participated in the survey, which comprised three sections with a total of 33 items. Results indicate that about 80% of the respondents engaged in physical activity and exercise during the MCO period, but male respondents reported a greater impact on their actual physical activity and exercise as compared to female respondents. This study reveals no significant correlation between gender and perception, but it does show a significant correlation between gender and behaviour (p < 0.05) in terms of physical activity and exercise during the MCO period. This study found that both genders have a positive understanding and awareness of the benefits of physical activity and exercise, which are crucial for physical and mental health during the pandemic.
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Dietary habits and body mass index between athletes and nonathletes of UiTM p. 12
Siti Soraya Binti Mohd Elias, Intan Nursyazanie Binti Mohamad Rizal
The aim of this study was to compare the dietary habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) between student-athletes and non-student athletes in UiTM (Universiti Teknologi MARA), as well as to study the relationship between their dietary habits and BMI. Dietary habits are the habitual decisions of the individual regarding what foods they eat, while BMI is one of the widely used tools to identify the nutritional status of the individual. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Respondents' body weight and height were self-measured, and respondents provide the data in the demographic section. Dietary habits questionnaire comprised of 18 questions, including the frequency of food intake from every section of the food pyramid, snack, fast food, vitamin and mineral supplements, breakfast, beverages intake and meal skipping. The result showed the mean dietary habits score of student-athletes were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than non-student athletes. This could indicate the awareness of the student-athlete to practice a good dietary habit for them to enhance their sports performance. Regarding BMI, majority of the respondents from both student-athletes (62%) and non-student athletes (70%) were in the normal weight BMI category, and no significant difference was found in both groups. In addition, present study found no significant relationship between dietary habits and BMI for both student-athletes (r-value = –0.093, p = 0.359) and non-student athletes' (r-value = –0.037, P = 0.713) groups, showing that dietary habits of the respondents does not correlate with their BMI. Although no significant association were found, normal BMI category and appropriate dietary habits are essential to be practised by everyone irrespective athletes or nonathletes, and this is to ensure a healthy lifestyle and reducing the risk of getting the non-communicable disease.
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Construction of the skill related physical fitness evaluation index system of Chinese Young male tennis players p. 18
Xiao Wensheng, Soh Kim Geok, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali Wazir, Nasnoor Juzaily bin Mohd Nasiruddin, Bai Xiaorong
The skill-related physical fitness evaluation index system is an important reference basis for evaluating the competitive level of tennis players. At present, there are few studies on the skill-related physical fitness evaluation index system of Chinese young male tennis players. Based on the characteristics of tennis events and the sensitive period of the development of young tennis players skill-related physical fitness variables, this study uses literature methods, Delphi method and other research methods to construct an evaluation index system for Chinese young male tennis players skills related physical fitness. The results show that: Chinese young male tennis players skill-related physical fitness includes six first-level indicators including speed, strength, endurance, agility, flexibility, and power, 11 second-level indicators such as aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance, upper body power, and lower body power, etc., 16 third-level indicators such as the hexagon test, beep test, sit and reach, etc.
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Comparison of low-load bench press and push-up exercises on muscular performance among female youth p. 27
Nur Khairunisa Abu Talip, Edmund Bonnie, Zulkifli Ismail, Mohd Rizal Md Razali
Introduction: Various fitness challenges had been invented and innovated in order to integrate exercise in life, especially during the new norm of Covid-19 pandemic. There is a lack of study on the effect of push-up exercise on sedentary women. The study aimed to compare the effects of six-week push-up (PU) and low-load bench press (BP) exercise interventions towards muscular strength (MS) and muscular endurance (ME) among healthy sedentary female youth. Methodology: Forty (n = 40) healthy sedentary female youth (aged 18.93 ±.97 years; body mass index 23.44 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were recruited in the study. Participants were divided into two groups of training interventions (push-up and bench press group). Resistance exercise intervention involving four sessions per week for six consecutive weeks. Each session comprised of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with one minute of rest between each set. Bench press exercise was performed at 40% 1RM for bench press group. One-repetition maximum bench press (1RM BP) test and one-minute push-up (1 Min PU) test were performed at pre and post-intervention to measure muscular strength and muscular endurance. A 2 × 2 mixed model ANOVA was employed to compare the effects of the two interventions following six-weeks of training. Result: Muscular strength and muscular endurance for the push-up group have significantly improved (p < .05), with at the end of the intervention were 59.75 ± 13.91 and 45.05 ± 6.59 as compared to during the pre-intervention of 42.0 ± 11.40 and 28.95 ± 5.93, respectively. A similar result also found for bench press group. Muscular strength and muscular endurance for bench press group had significantly increased (p < .05), from the pre-test of 44.50 ± 9.58 and 29.95 ± 6.28 to the post-test of 60.25 ± 10.45 and 41.45 ± 6.20, respectively. However, there is no significant difference observed between groups (bench press and push-up protocols) on muscular strength (p = .661) and muscular endurance (p = .472). Conclusions: The present study concludes that push-up and low-load bench press exercise interventions do significantly improve muscular strength and muscular endurance of sedentary female youth, with push-up as an alternative for bench press for sedentary female youth.
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Understanding mental health in malaysian elite sports: a qualitative approach p. 33
Philip Lew Chun Foong, Rebecca Wong Sook Kwan
The attention in the society and rapid expansion of interest on the status and challenges of mental health among sporting athletes, especially in the elite sports setting, had increased exponentially. The present study was aimed to explore and gain a better understanding of mental health and psychological well-being of Malaysian elite athletes. It also provides insights into a broader aspect based on participants' personal experiences. A semi-structured interview was conducted for all 32 athletes (male, n = 16; female, n = 16) from a variety of sport: individual, team-sports; able-bodied, and Paralympic. Participants were aged between 19-38 years old (mean 25.69 years) from various ethnicity and religions. Six (6) themes (Personal understanding on mental health; Stigma of mental health; Symptoms, effects and sources of mental health; Coping strategies; Mental health and well-being support; Advice of athletes) and 19 subthemes were derived based on qualitative thematic analysis. Based on the analysis, subthemes, i.e. Presentation in mass media; Transition; Personal life-related issues; Performance expectation; Sporting environment are significant stressors causing mental health issues. The influence of spirituality and religion on the topic of mental health was also being highlighted. In conclusion, it is hopeful that the present study will stimulate interest and discussion in identifying methods and direction for both researchers and practitioners in bridging the theoretical-applied gap and offer effective supports to Malaysian athletes.
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Cheerleaders' motivation and readiness to return to sport following injury p. 42
Cynthia Anne Cornelius, Brandon Tan Leng Wei
Returning to sport following an injury is a process that is riddled with difficulties, especially so for competitive athletes. This is a quantitative research employed survey method. A total of 130 cheerleaders (age = 25.66 ± 4.928 years old) participated in this study where they have suffered from an injury that has put them out from sports for 1-4 weeks. Two inventories were completed: 1) Adapted Sport Motivation Scale and 2) Readiness to Return to Sport Questionnaire. The demographic data collected were age, team cheer division, position in team and injury duration. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Pearson product-moment correlation, Independent T-test and One-way ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. Results from the study showed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of intrinsic motivation (toward accomplishment and experience stimulation) and extrinsic motivation (identified regulation, introjected and external regulation) of athletes towards returning to sport after injury. This demonstrated that motivation significantly influenced athletes' readiness to return to sport following an injury. Correlation analyses revealed that the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation towards athletes' readiness to return to sports following injury were associated with a positive renewed perspective on engaging in sports. As the athletes perceived themselves to be psychologically ready to return to sport after injury; it also reflected on their self-determination to attempt the sport again without fear, worry, concern and anxiety of reinjure from occurring. This study indicated the importance of motivation in assisting injured athletes in returning to sport. Most athletes returned to sport because of others' expectations on themselves although they were not fully mentally prepared to return to sport due to their fear and concerns of performing at peak performance again.
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The differences in the ball speed and the spin rate depending on the results of a tennis serve p. 48
Ryogo Kashiwagi, Shuhei Okamura, Shinya Iwanaga, Shunsuke Murakami, Koki Numata, Hiroo Takahashi
In tennis, the service is the only shot that a player can give himself without being influenced by his opponent, and it is said to be the most powerful and essential shot in the game to win the game (Kovacs and Ellenbecker, 2011). In this study, we will investigate the difference in speed and spin rate in services when a service is entered, when it is not entered, and when an ace is taken. Fourteen three-set singles matches of 20 participants in the ATP Challenger tournament were included in the analysis. The speed and spin rate was measured using the Trackman. The analysis included 1343 1st service balls. We compared the speed and spin rate for each IN, FAULT and ACE in the 1st service using one-way ANOVA. The speed of the 1st service, IN was significantly slower than that of FAULT and ACE. The spin rate of the 1st serve, IN had significantly more revolutions than the FAULT and ACE. The results of this study showed that the service was faster and lower spin rate when ACE was taken. However, it was found that the faster the speed of the service and the lower the spin rate, the higher the rate of FAULT. These considerations suggest that it is important to decide whether to take risks or play it safe, depending on the game situation at the time.
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Kinematic differences in left-right side in blocking among college women's volleyball players in Japan p. 51
Koki Numata, Yoshie Motoshima, Koji Hamada, Misato Sakanaka, Shunsuke Murakami, Ryogo Kashiwagi, Hiroo Takahashi
In recent years, the attacking tactics of top-level teams have been dominated by a combination of four attackers. The basic approach to defending against this move is to block in the direction of the toss (Read Block System). This study compares and examines the difference between the left and right sides of the crossover step of women's volleyball players using the read block system. Fifteen Japanese college women's volleyball players (age: 20.1 ± 1.1 years, height: 169.3 ± 5.5 cm) were eligible for the study. A time-synchronized 16 camera Mac3D optical motion capture systems (Motion Analysis Co.) and 10 force plates (Tec Gihan Co.) were used to determine three dimensional (3-D) coordinates of 38 retroreflective markers. The players were told that the toss from the setter would go up randomly in one of the left or right direction, and they were asked to block in response to the toss from the centre of the net. The results showed that the performance of the jump height (p = 0.04, d = 0.50), maximum block reach (p = 0.01, d = 0.51), and motion time (p = 0.02, d = 0.75) was better than the left, and the effect size was large. Since most of the subjects in this study were right-handed (two of the Opposites were left-handed), it is assumed that they tended to perform better on the left side, which is a block stepping similar to spike stepping. However, some players may not use the spiking hand, so individualized instruction is required.
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Characteristics of resting ecg among sabah professional male footballers p. 55
Mohamad Azwan Bin Aziz, Redzal Abu Hanifah
The purpose of this study is to describe the resting electrocardiogram (ECG) seen among 176 professional male footballers from Sabah Football Association Club during preparticipation evaluation. Data were analysed retrospectively from 2017 to 2019. Majority of the players were Sabah natives (n = 153, 87%) while the remaining were Malay footballers (n = 23, 13%). Mean age of the players was 19.9 ± 3.1, mean body mass index was 22.6 kg/m2 ± 7, mean resting heart rate was 53.6 beats per minute ± 9.4, mean systolic blood pressure was 122.3 mmHg ± 12, and mean diastolic blood pressure was 65.1 mmHg ± 8.8. Using the International Criteria for ECG Interpretation in Athletes 2017 consensus guidelines, 8.5% (n = 15) had abnormal ECG while 2.8% (n = 5) had borderline ECG. The most common ECG changes seen in the normal findings were sinus bradycardia (n = 123, 69.9%), early repolarization (n = 115, 65.3%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 83,47.2%). Abnormal ECGs were abnormal t wave inversion (n = 7,4.0%) and pre-excitation syndrome (n = 5,2.9%). All footballers with abnormal ECG findings were subjected to further evaluation by a cardiologist using echocardiography assessment and exercise stress test. They passed the cardiology assessment; thus, they were deemed fit to play. ECG is a valuable tool for pre-participation health screening prior to exercise or sports participation, as it is vital for a physician to identify any abnormal ECG to minimise the risk of sudden cardiac death during exercise due to cardiac pathology.
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A triathlete with medial meniscus tear and subchondral insufficiency fracture p. 61
Azlan M Naing, GM Mariam
Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee (SIFK) is an important differential diagnosis for knee pain. If diagnosed early, SIFK can be treated conservatively with non-weight bearing ambulation. If left untreated, this disease may lead to catastrophic complications such as subchondral fragment detachment and fragmentation or subchondral collapse which will warrant the need for surgical intervention. The author reports a 44-year-old triathlete that presented with complaint of a trivial left anteromedial knee pain for one-year duration. This disease presented at an unusual site of the medial tibial condyle. Moreover, the patient is a healthy triathlete that does not have any predisposing factors for SIFK. Magnetic resonance imaging showed subchondral insufficiency fracture of the medial tibial condyle with a complex multi-directional medial meniscus tear in the same knee. Could the undiagnosed medial meniscus injury be the causation leading to the development of SIFK? Here, the author will summarize the literature on various clinical features, work-up and management of SIFK.
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