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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2021
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 65-140

Online since Tuesday, December 28, 2021

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A single bout of cycling exercise effects on short-term memory p. 65
Mohd Nidzam Jawis, Najihah Mohbin, Yee Cheng Kueh
Introduction: Exercise plays a role in enhancing neurogenesis and brain plasticity. Actively involved in musculoskeletal and cardiovascular activities at moderate intensity influences brain systems involved in working memory processes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of memorising before and after a single bout exercise on short-term memory. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 female university students with a mean age of 23.63 ± 1.46 years old were involved in this study. Participants completed a free recall test twice at pre- and post-exercise. The exercise session involved a single bout cycling ergometer at 50 watts while maintaining 60 rpm for 30 min and two five minutes periods of warm-up and cool down at 20 watts. Results: The percentage of words recalled in the free recall test post-exercise did not improve compared to pre-exercise. The percentage of immediate recency words recalled post-exercise (51.25 ± 21.87%) is higher than pre-exercise (48.75 ± 21.87%) but no significant difference compared to pre-exercise (p = 0.751). The percentage of words recalled post-exercise was correlated with heart rate during exercise (r = −0.59, p = 0.015). Conclusions: Participants with a higher heart rate during exercise had a lower percentage of words recalled at post compared to pre-exercise. However, a single bout of cycling exercise did not improve short-term memory.
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Relationship of sedentary behaviour and body composition of university student-athletes p. 70
Revin Aaron B. Santos, Marla Frances T. Mallari
Background: Sedentary behaviour is a major health concern not only for the general population but for athletes as well. Young athletes are considered highly active individuals due to the training required in their sports and would easily meet weekly recommendations for physical activity participation. However, athletes may also have the tendency to be highly sedentary if they spend most hours of their day sitting. This may lead to undesirable changes in body composition, which may negatively affect their health and performance. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and the body composition of university athletes. Methods: Data from 82 student-athletes (age = 20.02 ± 1.3 years; 38 males and 44 females) from different sports categories were gathered and analysed. Body composition, specifically body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, measured through bioelectric impedance analysis. Sedentary behaviour was quantified using a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Results: The analysis revealed no significant relationship between sitting time (hours/day) and body composition measures in both genders. A significant difference in sitting time was found when the groups were classified according to sports category (p = 0.03), where weight category sports (m = 6.99 h, standard deviation [SD] =2.74) indicated more sitting hours compared to non-weight category sports (m = 5.81 h, SD = 1.84). Between genders, there was no difference in reported sitting hours (p = 0.456); however, both groups spend relatively long periods sitting during the waking hours of the day. A moderate negative relationship was found between sports category and sitting time for the females only (r = −0.322, p = 0.028). For this population, females in the weight category had more sitting time than those in the non-weight category. Conclusion: These results suggest that among university student-athletes, sedentary behaviour is not associated with changes in body composition. Even so, sedentary behaviour was evident among the participants; hence, the importance of educating athletes about the detrimental effects of sedentary living on health and performance becomes more vital
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Comparison between traditional resistance training and whole-body electrical stimulation in improving muscular strength p. 77
Raja Nurul Jannat Raja Hussain, Maisarah Shari, Noor Azila Azreen Md Radzi, Mohd Aizzat Adnan
Background: Greater muscular strength can enhance the ability to perform general sports skills such as jumping, sprinting, and direction tasks. Resistance Training (RT) is broadly applied by strength and conditioning coaches to increase strength. However, Whole-Body Electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) recently served as an alternative method to increase muscular strength in high-performance athletes. This study aimed to examine the effects of two different training modalities on muscular strength. Methods: Sixty female collegiate softball players (Age = 23.52 ± 1.89 years; Height = 156.20 ± 1.71 cm; Mass = 53.21 ± 3.17 kg) were randomly assigned into 3 groups. All groups trained as usual for 8 weeks, with the first group performed 100 repetitions of dry swing (normal bat swing practice in softball). The second and third group performed a combination of dry bat swing with RT and WB-EMS, respectively. Muscular strength (upper body and lower body) for the 3 groups was evaluated before and after the 8-week program. Results: The main results showed that after the eight-week training, the upper and lower body strength significantly increased in both RT and WB-EMS groups compared to the control group (p = 0.000, and p = 0.000, respectively). While both groups contributed to the increase in muscular strentgth following 8 weeks of training, it was the RT that resulted in a larger magnitude of increase in strength. Conclusion: This study concluded that RT should be emphased in high performance athlete training while recognizing the potential benefit of WB-EMS in enhancing muscular strength.
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Effects of coconut sport gel on hydration measures, cognitive performance and anaerobic capacity in soccer players: A double-blind, randomised, cross-over study p. 84
Jheng Yie Wong, Hui Yin Ler, Swee Tee Thed, Michell Seok Lin Kyu, Shi Han Wong
Purpose: This study examined the effects of coconut sports gel (CSG) on hydration measures, cognitive performance and anaerobic capacity in soccer players. Materials and Methods: Seven soccer players (age: 21 ± 1.6 years; body weight (BW): 63.2 ± 6.6 kg; height: 172.3 ± 6.0 cm; VO2 max: 52.8 ± 1.4 ml. kg. min−1) participated in this study. Participants underwent one preliminary testing and two experimental trials: CSG and placebo (PLA) separated at least 7 days apart. Each trial consisted of hydration measurements and two cognitive (concentration and reaction time [RT]) and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump [VJ] and repeated sprint ability [RSA]) tests at (i) baseline, (ii) dehydration and (iii) rehydration. A 90-min exercise-induced dehydration protocol was used to induce ~ 2.0% of BW loss after baseline testing. Participants were required to ingest either CSG (CHO: 26 g, K+: 381 mg) or PLA (CHO: 26 g, K+: 0 mg) at 1.2 g. kg−1 BW of CHO within 30 min in a randomised order and replenished plain water (100% BW loss) during the 120 min of recovery period. Results: The results showed that participants were rehydrated after 2 h of recovery. Participants regained their BW from dehydration to rehydration: 61.3 ± 6.5 kg to 62.7 ± 6.6 kg (CSG trial) (p < 0.001) and 61.4 ± 6.3 kg to 62.6 ± 6.4 kg (PLA trial) (p = 0.001). Urine-specific gravity reduced from dehydration to rehydration: 1.0168 ± 0.0073–1.0082 ± 0.0068 (p = 0.019) and 1.0148 ± 0.0061–1.0108 ± 0.0054 (p = 0.286) in CSG and PLA trials, respectively. VJ and RSA performance were similar between trials and among time points (p > 0.05). The concentration scores, simple and choice RT tests showed no statistically significant difference in all time points between trials (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Cognitive performance and anaerobic capacity in soccer players were well maintained after rehydration. Therefore, CSG could be an alternative option for athletes for rehydration purposes.
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Exercise intensity and enjoyment response of selected traditional games in children p. 93
Adam Abdul Malik, Mohd Nidzam Jawis, Hairul Anuar Hashim
Background: Given that few children engage in the minimal requirement of moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), traditional games have been promoted as one of the strategies to improve MVPA levels to facilitate health enhancement, particularly in school settings. Nevertheless, little is known about the exercise intensity and enjoyment levels of traditional games in children. Methods: Participants (n = 600; 300 boys; age 10.1 ± 0.8) performed five selected traditional games (i.e. Bola Beracun, Baling Tin, Polis Sentri, Belalang Belatuk and Galah Panjang) for 20 min. Activity counts per minute (CPM), metabolic equivalent (METs) and activity time spent were recorded via accelerometer during all traditional games. Enjoyment responses were recorded before and after the traditional games. Results: No significant differences were observed across all traditional games for each variable (CPM, METs and enjoyment responses; p > 0.05). However, all selected traditional games played for 20 min elicited sufficient levels of MVPA based on CPM and METs thresholds (>500 CPM and >3 METs). The post-enjoyment score was significantly higher in all traditional games compared to pre-enjoyment (p < 0.01; effect size >0.47). Conclusions: Incorporating traditional games in a school setting for 20-min per session may facilitate sufficient levels of MVPA and augment enjoyment in children to promote multiple health benefits and future exercise engagement, respectively.
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Effects of Tabata workouts on the immune cell response in physically inactive individuals p. 99
Nur Ain Syahira Mohd Noor, Ayu Suzailiana Muhamad, Adam Abdul Malik
Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is popular nowadays as it produces similar positive results to moderate-intensity exercise, and at the same time, it is time-efficient as it needs a shorter exercise duration. To date, immune responses following HIIT are not well documented. Aim: To determine the effects of Tabata workouts on the immune cell response in physically inactive individuals. Methods: A total of 12 physically inactive individuals (mean age = 22.0 ± 0.9 years) were recruited amongst students of Universiti Sains Malaysia in this training programme for 6 weeks (3 sessions/week). This programme consisted of four sets of Tabata workouts, with each set containing two types of exercise (20 s for each exercise) with rest intervals between exercises of 10 s. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were recorded during each exercise session. Bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and blood samples (2 mL) were collected at baseline, at midtest and following the 6 weeks of intervention. Blood samples were analysed for total leucocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Results: There were significant increases in total leucocyte (P = 0.042) and neutrophil counts (P = 0.039) following 6 weeks of Tabata workouts. An increasing trend was also observed for monocyte count (P = 0.065) but not for the lymphocyte count (P = 0.304). Participants' body weight, BMI and body fat percentage were maintained throughout the intervention period. Conclusion: HIIT induced positive immune cell response in physically inactive individuals. Hence, it can be recommended and incorporated in exercise programme design for physically inactive individuals.
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Disablement in the physically active scale-TR short form-10: Turkish adaptation study p. 105
Sabriye Ercan, Giray Kolcu, Ferdi Baskurt, Cem Çetin, Zeliha Baskurt, Muhammed Buyukdemir
Introduction: The absence of a scale adapted to Turkish to determine the level of insufficiency in the physical activities of athletes sometimes causes difficulties in our clinical practices. Our study aims to adapt the Short Form-10 (SF-10) of the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (DPA) to Turkish. Materials and Methods: Athletes who are healthy or have any musculoskeletal injuries participated in the study. DPA-TR SF-10, which consists of ten items, and the SF-12 scale used in the analysis of concurrent validity were applied to 106 athletes. Results: As a result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), no item was required to be removed from the scale. A high level of correlation was found between DPA-TR SF-10 and physical component summary sub-score of the SF-12 scale (r = 0.61; p< 0.01). The reliability coefficient obtained as a result of the reliability analysis was estimated to be 0.91. All items in the scale were determined to be distinctive. In order to facilitate the calculation of the DPA-TR SF-10 score, the sum of the answers given to the 5-point Likert Scale was evaluated. Thus, the lowest score of the DPA-TR SF-10 is 10, and 50 is the highest score. Conclusion: DPA-TR SF-10 has been provided in Turkish to evaluate physically active individuals/athletes as a valid and reliable measurement tool.
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Level of enjoyment during physical activity among children p. 112
Wong Soon Heng, Denise Koh
Introduction: Physical activity (PA) brings a lot of benefits to children physically, cognitively and emotionally. Through PA, children will be healthier and children's physical performance will also improve from time to time. In addition, children's emotional management, academic performance and social skills will become better. Fun is needed to motivate children to keep involve in PA actively. Therefore, factors that influence level of fun during PA should be determined for further action. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine children's level of fun and socio-demographic factors that influence children's level of fun during PA. Methods: This quantitative study involved 167 students aged 10–12 years from five SRJK(C) schools in zon Simpang, Perak. The questionnaire used was adapted from Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). Results: The findings show that children's level of fun during PA is low. The findings also indicate that there is a significant difference in children's gender (t (165) = −2.16, p = 0.033), age (F (2, 164) = 9.18, p < 0.001) and body mass index (F (2, 164) = 7.06, p = 0.001) on children's level of fun during PA. Conclusion: The study found that children that have higher levels of enjoyment during physical activity have lower body mass index. This shows that children's level of fun plays an important role to motivate and encourage involvement of them in PA actively.
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Perception of physical literacy among secondary school physical education teachers p. 117
Chang Siang Cheng, Denise Koh
Introduction: Physical literacy (PL) is important among children and teenagers. Studies have shown that children with high level of PL tend to be more active and not only is an active lifestyle linked to lower risk of metabolic disease, it's also associated with better academic results. Physical Education (PE) curriculum in school is aimed to develop PL among school children and PE teachers plays an important role in achieving that goal. Although PE teachers are models of people with good PL, PE teachers in schools does not necessarily take this into account. Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the level of perception PL among PE teachers in Malaysia. Methods: This quantitative study involved secondary school PE teachers (N=100) from Miri, Sarawak. Physical literacy was measured using the Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument (PPLI). Results: This study found that the overall level of PL is high among PE teachers (M = 4.23 ± 0.39) with no significant difference between gender, location and teaching experience. However, PE teachers who majored in PE have a significantly higher PL compared to PE teachers who were not PE majors. Conclusions: The significantly higher PL among PE teachers who majored in PE shows that they may be more suitable to teach PE. Whenever possible, PE should be taught by subject-qualified teachers for PE to be effective in developing PL among students.
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Multivariate regression modeling of Chinese artistic gymnastic handspring vaulting kinematic performance based on judges scores p. 121
Jin Seng Thung, Jianhong Gao, Lianyee Kok
Introduction: Vault kinematic variables have been found to be strongly correlated with vault difficulty (DV) values and judges' scores. However, the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique Code of Points (COP) was updated after every Olympic Games rendering previous regression models inadequate. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a prediction model for vault performance based on judges' scores. Methods: Handspring vaults (n = 70) were recorded during the Men's Artistic Gymnastic qualifying round of the 2017 China National Artistic Gymnastics Championship using a video camera placed 50 m perpendicular to the vault table. Kinematic data were coded and correlated with judges' official competition final scores (FSs). The vault samples were used to develop a mathematical model (n = 65) and to verify the scores against the predicted model (n = 5). Partial least squares regression was established using the statistical software to calibrate and cross validate the model. Results: The goodness-of-fit of a 3-factor model was utilised (R2cal = 90.13% and R2val = 87.30%) and a significant and strong relationship was observed between predicted Y (FS) and reference Y (FS) in both the calibration and validation models (rcal = 0.949, rval = 0.932) with Y-calibration error (RMSEC = 0.1727) and Y-prediction error (RMSEP = 0.1990). Maximum height, 2nd-flight-time and DV were the key variables against FS. Using JSPM, 40% of new samples were within the acceptable range. Conclusion: Kinematic variables and known DV seem adequate to form a JSPM that could offer coaches an alternative scientific approach to monitor vault training.
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The effect of lower limb wearable resistance on kicking kinematics and kinetics during a martial art's front kick performance p. 128
Sharon Yeap Sze Nie, Nur Ikhwan Mohamad
Background: Wearable resistance works best with lighter load, but appropriate loading range is debatable. Objective: It is the main purpose of this study to investigate the kinematics and kinetics effect of wearable resistance (WR), when loaded on the lower limb body part during a martial arts front kick performance. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female martial arts athletes aged between 20 and 25 years old with body mass (BM) between 40 kg to 55 kg were recruited. Subjects were required to perform three repetitions for each condition: Unloaded (UL), calf loaded (CL) 3% BM and calf and thigh loaded (CTL) 3% BM in a randomised order that made up total 9 repetitions. Velocity, force and power were collected and used to assess the kinematic and kinetics of kicking executions using Kinovea Two-dimensional Motion Analysis Software. Data were statistically analysed to produce neural and mechanical profiles of the front kick, and comparisons of the outputs were made by using repeated-measure one-way analysis of variance test. Results: Overall, the results showed no significant differences within three WR conditions. Besides, the results also showed no significant difference when comparing between velocity, force and power for all three WR conditions. Conclusion: Evidently, 3% BM loading is still insufficient to observe the improvement. Most important, similar results obtained regardless of WR load placement location on the leg during front kick performance. Recommendation: In summary, researcher suggested that both loaded conditions more than 3% BM and below 30 kg might be sufficient and also effective for improving the front kick performance as well as future study should include the element of impulse–momentum to ensure the result can be more applicable to the competitive combat sports.
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Comparison of stress contributing factors based on teaching experience among secondary school physical education teachers in Selangor, Malaysia p. 133
Ab Wahid Mohd. Khairudin, Kim Geok Soh, Kim Lam Soh, Swee Leong Ong
Objective: This study identified stress contributing factors among secondary school physical education teachers and compared them based on teaching experience. Research Methodology: This study adopted a cross-sectional study design, and the data were obtained using the survey method. This study involved 258 physical education teachers within the secondary level of public schools. The questionnaire consisted of five constructs: career dilemma, career progression, misconceptions of career, work environment and work relationship. The teaching experience was divided into four categories of 1–5 years, 6–10 years, 11–15 years and 16 years above. Descriptive statistical analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to describe the findings. Findings: Three main contributing stressors among physical education teachers were career dilemma (mean [M] = 35.26, standard deviation [SD] = 5.17), development status (M = 34.77, SD = 4.48) and work relationship (M = 27.09, SD = 2.87). Factors contributing to stress based on teaching experience found that misconceptions of careers showed a significant result where F value (3, 254) = 3.95, p = 0.009 < 0.05. Tukey's post hoc analysis found that significant results were reported teaching experience between 1–5 and 6–10 years. Conclusions: It was evident that teaching experience had a major influence in determining the stress level among teachers. Teaching experience assisted teachers in decision-making, which leads to better handling of stressful situations. In addition, this study observed a misconception in a career as one of the contributing factors of stress experienced by the teachers with a teaching experience of 1–5 and 6–10 years who took part in this study.
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Traumatic bicipitoradial bursitis masquerading as an aggressive soft tissue neoplasm of the cubital fossa p. 138
Zhuang Li Lim, Samihah Abdul-Karim
This case report discusses a sudden forearm swelling in an otherwise healthy elderly female, which was initially thought to be malignant following clinical examination and imaging studies. An incisional biopsy showed native bursal tissue – bicipitoradial bursitis. Diagnosing bicipitoradial bursitis is challenging due to its intrinsic anatomical rarity. Nevertheless, merely performing radiological imaging may not adequately confirm the diagnosis since some of the characteristic changes are similar to other pathologies such as a myotendinous tear, a neoplasm or an infection. A histopathological examination may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
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